Al-Qaeda

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Contents


Books

Alexander, Yonah, Swetnam, Michael. Osama Bin Laden's Al Qaeda: Profile of a Terrorist Network. Transnational Publishers, 2001

We chose this book because it gives an excellent account of the terrorist network. This book gives different sources of support Al-Qaeda receives including financial support. This book also provides an ideology and objective of Al-Qaeda. This book informs the reader of different tactics used by terrorists that are affiliated with Al-Qaeda and also informs the reader about different terrorist attacks. This book also mentions different people who are associated with Al-Qaeda.

Atwan, Abdel Bari.The Secret History of Al-Qaeda. University of California Press, 2006

We chose this book because it gives a lot of detail about Osama Bin Laden and his rule over the members of Al-Qaeda. This book talks about the rise of the notorious terrorist organization, and the power it has. The author establishes what Al-Qaeda is or has become, what it wants, what its capabilities are, and how the West can answer its complaints and challenges. This book mentions the fighters of Al-Qaeda,and their willingness to kill and be killed.

Corbin, Jane. Al-Qaeda: The Terror Network that Threatens the World. Nation Books; Upd Sub edition, 2003

We chose this book because it contains a solid account of Al-Qaeda's exploits and contains three parts that each give facts about Al-Qaeda. The first section is about Osama Bin Laden and his terror network. The second part is about September 11th and includes biographies of the nineteen hijackers, and the third part has information about the War on Terror and Al-Qaeda.

Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside Al-Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. Berkley Trade; Rei Sub edition, 2003

We chose this book because it goes into detail about Osama Bin Laden and talks about the Al-Qaeda organization. This book also mentions Al-Qaeda's global network and the threat Al-Qaeda holds. This book mentions some of the damages Al Qaeda has caused and some of the training involved to be part of Al-Qaeda.

Hoffman, Bruce: Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006

We chose this book because it is an excellent source for learning about terrorism and some of the tactics, and motives of global terrorism. This book focuses on how Al-Qaeda has changed since September 11th. This book describes tactics behind the longevity of terrorism and Al- Qaeda and how it has been so successful. This book mentions different forms of terrorism and how America has changed since the formation of terrorism.

Isaacs, April. Critical Perspectives on Al-Qaeda. Rosen Pub Group, 2006

We chose this book because it mentions Al-Qaeda's past, present, and future which helps the reader fully understand Al-Qaeda. This book talks about where Al-Qaeda is today and who Al- Qaeda actually is. This book mentions how Al-Qaeda has affected the United States and also how it has affected the world.

Kushner, Harvey. Encyclopedia of Terrorism. Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE Publications; 1 edition, 2002

We chose this text because it gives a lot of detail on terrorism and has over 300 entries about terrorism. This text includes information about Al-Qaeda and how terrorism and Al-Qaeda are related. The author of this text is a renowned terrorism expert and chair of the Department of Criminal Justice at Long Island University in New York City. This text also has an excellent appendix which includes a chronology of terrorism from 1865 to the present, and also mentions many different topics about terrorism and Al-Qaeda.

Lawrence, Wright. The Looming Tower Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. New York: Vintage Books, 2007.

We chose this book because it gives detailed information about Osama Bin Laden, and many of the activities he has been up to in past decades. This book describes the attack on 9/11 and how Bin Laden and his forces may be to blame. Lawrence Wright's description of Osama Bin Laden and the terrorist attack on America make this book a fantastic book which educates all on Osama Bin Laden and Al Qaeda. This book also shows how Al Qaeda has risen to power and how much intelligence Al Qaeda actually has.

Margulies, Phillip. Al-Qaeda : Osama Bin Laden's army of Terrorists. New York: Rosen Pub. Group, 2003.

We chose this book because it discusses the Islamic organization that we know of as Al- Qaeda, and how Al-Qaeda may have played a role in the terrorist attack on America on September 11, 2001. This book is an excellent source for learning about Al-Qaeda because it has information regarding the role of Al-Qaeda and 9/11.

Martin, David C. Best laid plans : The Inside story of America's war against Terrorism. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.

We chose this book because it informs the reader of many different terrorist attacks that have taken place so the reader can have a full understanding of how Al-Qaeda has used their powers. This book mentions the fears and consequences of terrorism and how Al-Qaeda has used has had the power to do what they have done.

Perliger, Arie. Middle Eastern Terrorism. New York : Chelsea House, 2006

We chose this book because it gives the reader background information about terrorism and how terrorism first developed in the Middle East. This book portrays how terrorism is in a pursuit for national liberation. This book also mentions other nations and how terrorism is alive in many different parts of the world. This book also gives the reader information about Al Qaeda and how terrorism has developed in Iraq.

Rabasa, Angel: Beyond Al-Qaeda: Part 1: The Global Jihadist Movement. RAND Corporation, 2007

We chose this book because it mentions what we define as Al-Qaeda and the universe of jihad groups that are associated with Al-Qaeda. This book talks about the global jihad movement and the geographic scope Al Qaeda has had on the United States. Also, this book mentions different terrorist groups that are associated with Al Qaeda.

Record, Jeffery: Dark victory. America's Second war against Iraq. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, c2004

We chose this book because it talks about the war on terrorism and that attack on September 11, 2001. This book talks about the consequences and questions people have regarding President Bush's war on terrorism. This book goes in detail about Bush's views and his decision to decide to enter the war against terrorism and Al Qaeda.

Sanchez, James: Who's Who in Al-Qaeda and Jihadi Movements in Europe and Russia 33,415 Key Individuals, Organizations, Incidents, and Linkages. 2007

We chose this book because it talks about the individuals, organizations, incidents and linkages that are involved with Al Qaeda. This book gives a lot of detail about different leaders and people involved in Al-Qaeda. Also, this book includes detailed information on the political and economic immigrant institutions in Europe, Russia and Eurafrica.

Articles

Aldrich, George H. "The Taliban, Al Qaeda, and the determination of Illegal Combatants." The American Journal of International Law 96, no. 4 (2002): 891-898. database online. JStor; accessed on April 1, 2008.

With the recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq the United States Military has encountered a new and difficult problem. This problem arises from the fact that many Al Qaeda members and the Taliban that support them often look like average citizens. It can be very difficult to determine who should be detained. This problem also arises when Al Qaeda fighters surrender en-masse, it is difficult to determine which fighters are of high enough intelligence value to bother detaining. This is a valuable resource because it explains some of the problems often faced by the military during the War On Terror.

Cetina, Karin Knorr. "Complex Global Microstructures: The New Terrorist Societies." Theory, Culture & Society 22, no. 5 (2005): 213-234. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Database Online. Ebscohost; Accessed April 1, 2008.

This article gives an insight to the structure of terrorist societies, in particular, Al Qaeda. It describes the structure of Al Qaeda as "global in scope, but micro-sociological in character." It describes how the microstructures are conceptualized structures that are all connected and integrated.

Cruickshank, Paul. “Abu Musab Al Suri: Architect of the New Al Qaeda.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30, no.1 (2007): 1-14. SocINDEX. Database Online. Ebscohost; Accessed April 1,2008.

This article compares pre 9/11 Al-Qaeda and post 9/11 Al-Qaeda. It shows the power of Jihad in influenced members of the organization.

Davis, Benjamin R. "Ending the cyber jihad: Combating terrorist exploitation of the internet with the rule of law and improved tools for cyber governance." CommLaw Conspectus 15, no.1 (2006): 119-187. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Database Online. Ebscohost; Accessed April 1, 2008.

This article talks about the need to combat terrorist exploitation of the internet with new laws and governing of the internet. The internet is a tactical tool that Al Qaeda uses to post information on their attacks and views. It gives insight to what could be done to prevent the terrorist exploitation of the internet as a tool for their orginizations.

Doran, Michael. "The Pragmatic Fanaticism of al Qaeda: An Anatomy of Extremism in Middle Eastern Politics." Political Science Quarterly 17, no. 2 (2002): 177-190. database online. JStor; accessed April 1, 2008.

This article examines the influence of extremism and terrorism in Middle Eastern Politics. Al Qaeda and other terrorist groups have formed alliances with Middle Eastern governments. These governments assist Al Qaeda with funding, supplies and training and Al Qaeda's extremist views greatly influence Middle Eastern politics. This article also explores the often contradictory public statements and actions of Al Qaeda. This is a valuable resource for understanding the influence of Al Qaeda on Middle Eastern politics.

Dwyer, Jim. “Mourning After 9/11, Outrage Ever Since.” New York Times (1/1/1985 to present); 03/15/2008, p1. Academic Search Premier. Online Database. Ebscohost; Accessed April 1,2008.

This article discusses the topic of America’s outrage with Al-Qaeda since 9/11. It talks about the symbolism and the perception that Americans truly have about Al-Qaeda.

Edwards, David B. "Bin Laden's Last Stand." Anthropology Quarterly 75, no. 1 (2001): 178-185. database online. Ebscohost: accessed April 1, 2008.

This article discusses the use of rhetoric by the United State's government to proclaim Osama Bin Laden as "the evildoer" and "the face of terror". This article also examines the fact that Bin Laden is a hero in many countries. This is a valuable resource because it clarifies the United States government's position toward Al Qaeda and how it is very different from that of many countries around the world.

Freeman, Michael. "Democracy, Al Qaeda, and the Causes of Terrorism: A Strategic Analysis of U.S. Policy." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 31, no. 1 (2008): 40-59. EJS E-Journals. Database Online. Ebscohost; Accessed April 1, 2008.

This article analyzes how spreading democracy would affect the motivation of terrorism. With countries like the U.S. pushing for the spread of democracy, clashes are bound to happen between countries that are used to a theocracy. It describes how democracy would clash with Islamic culture and law, causing more turbulence between democracy and terrorism.

Hellmich, Christina. “Creating the Ideology of Al Qaeda: From Hypocrites to Salafi-Jihadists.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 31, no. 2 (2008): 111-124. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Database Online. Ebscohost; Accessed April 1, 2008.

This article is useful, because it discusses the current hold notions most of the world has of Al-Qaeda. The author claims that many of the assumptions made on Al-Qaeda are from an outside in perspective and are generalizations and many times exaggerations. It gives an objective point of view on many different opinions of the organization and attempts to decipher fact from fiction.

Hellmich, Christina. Redig, Amanda J. “The Question is When: The Ideology of Al Qaeda and the Reality of Bioterrorism.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30, no.5 (2007): 375-396. SocINDEX. Database Online. Ebscohost; Accessed April 2,2008.

This article discusses the Islamic beliefs in relations to the guidelines set by the members of Al-Qaeda. It discusses how the enemies of the organization are found to be enemies of Allah which therefore strengthens the belief of its members. It also discusses the threat Al-Qaeda poses from a Bioterrorism aspect.

Jawad, Said T. "Hunting Al Qaeda." Foreign Affairs 86, no.5 (2007): 188-189. Academic Search Premier. Database Online. Ebscohost; Accessed April 1, 2008.

The author of this artical, Said Jawad, is the Afghan Ambassador to the United States. It is a letter to the editor about the artical "Al Qaeda Strikes Back" and provides a good source to back up the information and give new insight to the arguements.

Jones, Calvert. "Al Qaeda's Innovative Improvisors: Learning in a Diffuse Transnational Network."Cambridge Review of International Affairs 19, no. 4 (2006):555-569. Academic Search Premier. Database Online. Ebscohost; Accessed on March 31,2008.

This article examines Al Qaeda's ability to remain an effective organization in the ever-changing post-9/11 world. Since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks Al Qaeda has been continually forced to change its infrastructure and networks. Recent security measure have limited Al Qaeda's access to many resources; this has caused the terror organization to change tactics and communication networks in order to continue functioning. This article explores Al Qaeda's ability to learn and adapt without a centralized headquarters and a clearly defined hierarchy.

Kagan, Frederick W. “Why we’re winning in Iraq.” Wall Street Journal 250, no.75 (2007) A15. Online Database. Ebscohost; Accessed April 1,2008.

This article gives a different perspective on the war Iraq than the one that is usual conveyed. It focuses on the success of counterinsurgency. He claims this is a huge part of making the war a success for America.

Knight, Alan. "Jihad and cross-cultural media: Osama bin Laden as reported in the Asian press." Pacific Journalism Review 13, no. 2 (2007): 155-174. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Database Online. Ebscohost; Accessed April 1, 2008.

An article on Asian views of terrorism and Osama Bin Laden's Al Qaeda that shows how foreign countries view terrorism. It also talks about terrorist attacks in Asia. This article gives an insight into foreign view on Al Qaeda and the scale of the geography of Al Qaeda's attacks and influence.

Maher, Shiraz. "Road to Jihad." Index on Censorship 26, no.4 (2007): 144-147. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Database Online. Ebscohost; Accessed on April 1, 2008.

The article gives insight to the benefits of the internet to the terrorist world. Terrorists such as Al Qaeda use the internet to recruit members and post radical material on websites. It is a tool for Al Qaeda to make publicly known the actions they have carried out and the developments they have made. It is a tool for Al Qaeda to communicate world wide with members and even provide funds to different locations instantly.

Nacos, Brigette L. “Post-9/11 Terrorism Threats, News Coverage, and Public Perceptions in the United States.” International Journal of Conflict & Violence 1, no.2 (2007): 22,105-126; SocINDEX. Database Online. Ebscohost; Accessed April 1,2008.

This is a useful article because it examines how political leaders and media affect the public opinion on terrorism. It notes the prepared statements that are made by Al-Qaeda leaders and our American leaders through the media.

Pollack, Kenneth M. “So Much for Good Intentions.” New York Times 16 March 2008, 12; Academic Search Premier. Online Database. Ebscohost; Accessed April 2,2008.

This article discusses the popular topic of an exit strategy for our war in Iraq. It talks about some of America’s mistakes and misconceptions in general during the war. Another facet it discusses is how Iraq will be left when America exits.

Riedel, Bruce. "Al Qaeda Strikes Back." Future Survey 29, no.12 (2007): 3-4. Academic Search Premier. Database Online. Ebscohost; Accessed April 1, 2008.

The article focuses on how Al Qaeda has a solid base of operations in Pakistan and has large numbers in western Iraq and how the ideas of Osama Bin Laden attract followers. It gives good information on how Al Qaeda has grown and the geography of the terrorist group.

Riedel, Bruce. “The Return of the Knights: al-Qaeda and the Fruits of Middle East Disorder.” Survival 49, no.3 (2007): 107-120. SocINDEX. Database Online. Ebscohost; Accessed April 2,2008.

This article discusses the origins and strategies of Al-Qaeda. It also talks about the organizational structure of Al-Qaeda and its importance. The author gives an in depth breakdown of how Al-Qaeda can be combated based on his knowledge of their strategy.

Rowland, Robert C. Theye Kirsten. “The Symbolic DNA of Terrorism” Communication Monographs 75, no.1 (2008): 52-85. Academic Search Premier. Database Online. Ebscohost; Accessed April 2,2008.

This article discusses the motivation of Al-Qaeda members in relation to Islam. It also discusses symbolism that outsiders use to try and understand the organizations tactics.

Shavit, Uriya. "Al Qaeda's Saudi Origins." Middle East Quarterly 13, no. 4 (2006): 3-13, 11. Academic Search Premier. database online. Ebscohost; accessed March 31, 2008.

This article goes beyond the well-known terrorist activity of Al Qaeda and explores the organizations intellectual beginnings in Saudi Arabia. This is a valuable resource because most people understand Al Qaeda's hatred of the West, but where did this hatred begin? This article examines the root of the Muslim extremist's hatred of the West. The perceived Western cultural attack on Muslim society is examined; as well as influential people such the kings and princes of the House of Saud, Osama Bin Laden, and Abdallah Azzam.

Stephens, Bret. “How al Qaeda Will Perish.” Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition 251, no.70 (2008): A22. Academic Search Premier. Online Database. Ebscohost; Accessed April 1,2008.

This article is useful, because it talks about propaganda in Iraq trying to encourage children to participate in Jihad. It asks parents not to hinder their children’s entrance into Jihad. The group that is responsible for this propaganda is Al-Qaeda.

Vinci, Anthony. “Becoming the enemy: Convergence in the American and Al Qaeda ways of warfare.” Journal of Strategic Studies 31 no.1 (2008): 69-88. SocINDEX. Database Online. Ebscohost; Accessed April 1,2008.

This article compares the western form of warfare employed by the U.S with the Islamic existential form of warfare used by Al-Qaeda. The author claims the importance of the U.S. understanding the tactics used by Al-Qaeda and their Islamic values.

Wedgwood, Ruth. "Al Qaeda, Military Commissions and American Self-Defense." Political Science Quarterly 117, no. 3 (2002): 357-372. database online. JStor; accessed April 1, 2008.

This article discusses the real and present danger that Al Qaeda poses to global safety. With massive resources at its disposal, fanatical and well trained members, and the random nature of their attacks, there is no saying where Al Qaeda will strike next. This article discusses Al Qaeda, its resources, members, beliefs, and tactics, as well as the United State's efforts to protect its citizens and global interests.

Yousafzai, Sami; Moreau, Ron; Hosenball, Mark. "Al Qaeda's Newest Triggerman." Newsweek 151, no. 2 (2008): 46-57 Academic Search Premier. Database Online. Ebscohost; Accessed April 1, 2008.

The article discusses Baitullah Mehsud, a jihadist leader in Pakistan. Mehsud was accused of being the leader behind former prime minister Benazir Bhutto' assassination on December 27, 2007. Mehsud has set up an Al Qaeda stronghold in northwest, and is one of the biggest current terrorist threats. It gives an insight into what kind of people make up groups like Al Qaeda.

Websites

I-Cias. "Al-Qa'ida", 2008, Available from http://i-cias.com/e.o/qaida.htm; Accessed March 2008

We decided to use this website because of the information that it provide on the setup and ideology of Al-Qaeda. The site is a encyclopedia. The site also contains a time line of the events that lead up to 9/11.

Global Security. "Al-Qaida/Al-Qaeda(The Base)", 2006, Available from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/al-qaida.htm; Accessed March 2008

We chose this other Al-Qaeda database provided by GlobalSecurity.org. This site has great coverage on Al-Qaeda's external aid and activities. There is also an outline of leadership of Al-Qaeda in a three teir hierarchy form, which will help us in understand the succession of leadership.

FAS. "Al- Qa'ida", 2005, Available from http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ladin.htm; Accessed March 2008

A website with a wide range of information on Al-Qeada. The website is made by an independent party and has some different topics and ideas that we have to be check before putting them into a paper, but the information was still really good.

Wikipedia. "Al-Qaeda", 2008, Available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Qaeda; Accessed March 2008

Al-Qaeda's wikipedia page. Everyone starts with wikipedia and works their way on from there. We decided to use the wikipedia page because it gives an example of the knowledge of the general public, even if the information can be added by anyone.

The Council on Foreign Relations. "Al-Qaeda", 2005, Available from http://www.cfr.org/publication/9126/; Accessed March 2008

The Council on Foreign Relations has a huge database on Al-Qaeda. We chose this site because the information on the history, formation, and operations of Al-Qaeda still provide a great source of knowledge even though, the site was last updated in July 2005.


Reference.com. "Al-Qaeda", 2008, Available from http://www.reference.com/search?q=al-qaeda; Accessed March 2008

When you start a project encyclopedias are the best place to start and that is why we chose reference.com. The encyclopedia article on Al-Qaeda includes great insight of the history and setup of Al-Qaeda.

Answers.com. "Al-Qaeda", 2007, Available from http://www.answers.com/topic/al-qaeda; Accessed March 2008

We used Answers.com for the brief summary and the world involvement of Al-Qaeda that the site provides. The site also included is a brief history of Al-Qaeda.

CNN. "Al-Qaeda", 2008, Available from http://topics.edition.cnn.com/topics/al_qaeda; Accessed March 2008

This is CNN's website section that is devoted to Al-Qaeda. We liked this site because of the news on the current actions of Al-Qaeda. Since this is an American news site the view is one of pro America and shows Al-Qaeda as a criminal organization. Another reason we chose this site is videos of top Al-Qaeda officials which shows their views unfiltered by the media.

Times(New York). "Al-Qaeda", 2008, Available from http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/organizations/a/al_qaeda/index.html?inline=nyt-org; Accessed March 2008

Another news website with information on Al-Qaeda. We used this site because the articles on Al-Qaeda that go back before the 9/11 attacks which show a different kind of view on Al-Qaeda. Also has information on the history of Al-Qaeda.

Encarta "Al-Qaeda", 2007, Available from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_701610346/Al-Qaeda.html; Accessed March 2008

Encarta online is a Encyclopedia that is provided by Microsoft. The reason we chose Encarta.com is because it has a detailed history of both Al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden. Also Is Al-Qaeda's mission and an outline of its structure.

Info Please. "Al-Qaeda: Osama bin Laden's Network of Terror", 2007, Available from http://www.infoplease.com/spot/al-qaeda-terrorism.html; Accessed March 2008

Infoplease's special feature of World and New on Al-Qaeda. We chose infoplease.com because it has a wide range of topics on Al-Qaeda including leadership and structure, ideology and goals, the war on terror, and Al-Qaeda's involvement in Iraq.

ABC News. "Confessions of the Al-Qaeda Mastermind", Available from http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/popup?id=2953324; Accessed March 2008

A Photo gallery which timelines the attacks of Al-Qaeda, faces of the terrorist, and possible targets. The Gallery is by ABC News which includes fifteen slides by different photographers. The reason we liked this site is it gives us a visual of Al-Qaeda members and their attacks on the world.

BBC News. "Investigating Al-qaeda", 2008, Available from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/world/2001/war_on_terror/default.stm; Accessed March 2008

A BBC News sub-website that provide information on all of the middle east. Has a section that goes over the history, formation, and hunt of Al-Qaeda, which is called investigating Al-Qaeda. The Information is by a British news company which helps keep down the pro-American basis, which made it a good source for us to chose.

Times(London). "Middle East News", 2008, Available from http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/middle_east/; Accessed 2008

A London base newspaper's news on the Middle East. This British newspaper provides a view because of the way they report news on Al-Qaeda. This different view point is why we chose the site because it suppose to be a non-basis view of Al-Qaeda. A lot of the American sites are mostly pro-American and Al-Qaeda/ Islam bashing. We also chose a British paper, because Britian has a large and growing population of Muslims.

PBS Frontline. "Hunting: Bin Laden",1995-2008, Available from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/; Accessed March 2008

We chose a website by PBS Frontline that provides a background on Al-Qaeda. The site true focus is hunting Bin Laden, but has great info on the timeline of a Al-Qaeda and it's relationship since the founding with America have great value for our group paper.

"Profile: Al-Qaeda", 2008, Available from http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/entity.jsp?entity=al-qaeda; Accessed March 2008

The reason we like this site is the huge profile of Al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden. It begins with the Soviet Invasion in the 1980s to the formation of Al-Qaeda in the late 1980s and the terrorist attacks of 1990s and 2000s.