*phonological similarity effect

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The Phonological similarity effect was based on a task that involved presenting a list of items, usually letters, and then having the person repeat the letters back in the same order. The finding was that when a list of letters was presented (B, S, V, Y, T, F), under conditions of immediate serial recall, errors are more likely on the letters that sound similar (B, V, T) compared to letters that sound different (S, Y, F). This error is termed the Phonological similarity effect (Conrad & Hull, 1964; Baddeley, 1968).


The Phonological similarity effect explains the reason why it is difficult to recall a word sequence such as "time, tile, tight, type, tide." The reasoning is because when the phonological loop goes to process this information, two components are effected, both the phonological store, which retains speech-based memory, as well as the articulatory control process, which is responsible for translating visual information into speech-based codes, transfering it to the phonological store.